A ventricular septal defect (VSD), a hole in the heart, is a common heart defect that's present at birth (congenital). The hole occurs in the wall that separates the heart's lower chambers (septum) and allows blood to pass from the left to the right side of the heart. The oxygen-rich blood then gets pumped back to the lungs instead of out to the body, causing the heart to work harder. A small ventricular septal defect may cause no problems, and many small VSDs close on their own. Larger VSDs need surgical repair early in life to prevent complications.
Signs and symptoms of serious heart defects often appear during the first few days, weeks or months of a child's life. Ventricular septal defect symptoms in a baby [adult?] may include:
· Poor eating, failure to thrive
· Fast breathing or breathlessness
· Easy tiring
Signs and symptoms vary depending on the size of the hole and other associated heart defects. If the defect is small, symptoms may not appear until later in childhood — if at all. Sometimes a VSD isn't detected until a person reaches adulthood. Signs and symptoms can include
· a heart murmur
· shortness of breath
Cause Congenital Heart Defect
Congenital heart defects arise from problems early in the heart's development, but there's often no clear cause. Genetics and environmental factors probably play a role. VSDs can occur alone or with other congenital heart defects.
During fetal development, a ventricular septal defect occurs when the muscular wall separating the heart into left and right sides (septum) fails to form fully between the lower chambers of the heart (ventricles).
Normally, the right side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs to get oxygen; the left side pumps the oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body. A VSD allows oxygenated blood to mix with deoxygenated blood, causing the heart to work harder to provide enough oxygen to the body's tissues. It's also possible to acquire a VSD later in life, usually after a heart attack.
Some smaller ventricular septal defects are closed surgically to prevent complications related to their locations, such as damage to heart valves. Many people with small VSDs have productive lives with few related problems.
Medications for ventricular septal defect may include those to:
· Increase the strength of the heart's contractions. Examples include digoxin (Lanoxin).
· Decrease the amount of fluid in circulation and in the lungs. Doing so reduces the volume of blood that must be pumped. These medications, called diuretics [water pill] include furosemide (Lasix).
· Keep the heartbeat regular. Examples include beta blockers (Lopressor, Inderal LA, others) and digoxin (Lanoxin, Lanoxin Pediatric).
Garlic vs Synthetic Medication Side-effects
Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC139960/
· Garlic strengthens heart [lungs] vs digoxin (Lanoxin
· Garlic balances circulatory system vs diuretics (furosemide Lasix
· By strengthening and balancing vs beta blockers (Lopressor, Inderal LA, others and digoxin (Lanoxin, Lanoxin Pediatric
Effect of Garlic on Cardiovascular Disorders: A Review
Effectiveness of garlic in cardiovascular diseases was more encouraging in experimental studies, which prompted several clinical trials. This review has attempted to make a bridge the gap between experimental and clinical study and to discuss the possible mechanisms of such therapeutic actions of garlic.
Dietary factors play a key role in the development of various human diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that diets rich in fruits, herbs and spices are associated with a low risk of cardiovascular disease.
Garlic has attracted particular attention of modern medicine because of its widespread health use around the world, and the cherished belief that it helps in maintaining good health warding off illnesses and providing more vigor. To date, many favorable experimental and clinical effects of garlic preparations, including garlic extract, have been reported.
These biological responses have been largely attributed to i) reduction of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and cancer, ii) stimulation of immune function, iii) enhanced detoxification of foreign compound, iv) hepatoprotection, v) antimicrobial effect and vi) antioxidant effect. This review has been made indicating an overall view of the efficacy of garlic in cardiovascular disease conditions both in human and animals.
Raw garlic homogenate has been the major preparation of garlic subjected to intensive scientific study, as because it is the commonest way of garlic consumption. Raw garlic homogenate is essentially same as aqueous extract of garlic, which has been used in various scientific studies.
High Blood Pressure
A general definition of hypertension is a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 140 mm Hg or higher or a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90 mm Hg or higher or both. Prevention and proper management of hypertension decreases the incidence of related morbidity and mortality. Diets high in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products; have been shown to reduce hypertension. Increased consumption of garlic is associated with lower incidence of hypertension in population.
Blood pressure lowering effect of garlic on human is given in Table- Table-4.4. Blood pressure reduction was observed in 85% of the patients, the average decline being 12.3 mm Hg systolic (SBP) and 6.5 mm Hg diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, over one-quarter of the subjects experienced a decline in SBP of 20 mm Hg or more.
Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases characterized by high blood glucose levels resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Abnormalities in the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein, and fat are also present . Nutrition plays a primary role to control blood glucose level and further complication.
Results Diabetes and Garlic
Hypoglycemic effect of garlic in human is not well studied. Chronic feeding of garlic oil and garlic powder [78,135] showed significant decrease in blood glucose level whereas some other studies [57,117,136] showed no change of blood glucose level. Relatively few side effects were reported in clinical studies using garlic and its preparations. Most of the reported side effects were non-specific. Gastrointestinal discomfort and nausea were the most frequent complaint .
Epidemiological study shows an inverse correlation between garlic consumption and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease progression [180–182]. The wealth of scientific literature supports the proposal that garlic consumption have significant cardioprotective effect, which include both animal and human studies. But certain issues regarding the proper use of garlic, i.e use of different preparations available, dose, duration and interaction with generic drugs should be optimized. Further research should also be carried out to identify specific compounds from garlic or garlic products that are responsible for most of its biological effects. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC139960/